What is Muso Jikiden Eishin Ryu Iai?
Iaido is the art of Japanese Swordsmanship. The word itself has a number of meanings and interpretations. Each is dependant of a subjective translation as the word itself, like many Japanese martial concepts does not translate into English at all easily. The word is comprised of 3 Japanese characters: i-ai-do.
Roughly, “I” comes from Iru, to be; Ai (as in Aikido) means coming together, harmony, or love; and Dō means road, or Way (in the Buddhist sense). Loosely translated then, Iaido means being in harmony with one’s surroundings, always being prepared for any eventuality.
Iaido then is a term used to describe a wide variety of traditional styles of swordsmanship which trace their origins back as far as the fifteenth century. During the sixteenth century, when Japan was gripped by conflict and political upheaval, many hundreds of such styles – known as ‘ryū’ – were practised. Today many of these ryu have been lost and died out, though some precious few remain.
We are fortunate enough to train in a Koryū (古流) tradition (Koryū means "old martial ways" - the original martial arts of feudal Japan that pre-date modern arts like Kendo and Karate) of Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū (無双直伝英信流). You can read more about koryu - here.
Training in Iai involves a number of distinct yet interrelated disciplines:
Tanren - This is physical conditioning as taught in feudal Japan. It is comprised of a series of body weight and equipped drills. These drills increase psychical conditioning, fitness, strength and improve body movement and co-ordination. They also, importantly contribute to the spirit of the practitioner, training them to develop endurance, perseverance, humility, dedication and more.
Waza - The techniques, forms and kata of the Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū school of Iai. These are the core teachings of the school and foundation of Iaido. In virtually all schools of Iai, the kata/waza are composed of four essential elements. These are:
- Nukitsuke – The initial draw and simultaneous cut.
- Kiritsuke – The decisive finishing cut.
- Chiburui – A symbolic shaking of blood from the blade.
- Noto – Resheathing the sword.
Practically all kata have these fundamental parts in some combination or other, but may also include blocks, deflections, thrusts, and multiple cuts, depending on the scenario. Iai kata are performed solitary against imaginary opponents, called kassoteki, or teki. (There are also partner kata which I’ll mention in a moment).
The fact that there is no real adversary means the practitioner needs to be aware of where teki is at all times, and to focus his techniques accordingly. This demands intense concentration from the Iaidoka. Each kata, though outwardly simple, has myriad technical details that can make it fiendishly difficult to master. Indeed, a single kata could easily take a lifetime’s study, and still not be perfected. However, it is this quest for almost unattainable perfection that makes Iai what it is – a Way of strengthening the body, developing the character, and forging the Spirit.
Tachi Uchi no Kurai (太刀打之位) - These are the paired combat forms of Iai. These teach the student distance, timing and to confront a physical opponent. This is the kenjutsu. Within the MJER teachings we have 64 paired forms. Contrary to many beliefs the majority of the schools work involves working with a partner to learn distancing, timing, and targeting against a real, living and reacting opponent. This does not include henka waza if it did, that number would be well into the 100's. The first kata of the tachi uchi no kurai has over 17 variations on it's own.
I had the pleasure of demonstrating a selection of these forms and some of the more advanced Tsume Ai no Kurai (詰合之位) forms during a small embu in Bolgana, Italy in April 2017 under the supervision of Oshita Masakazu Sensei and my teacher Peter West Sensei.
In addition to these sets of kumitachi (組太刀:くみたち), meaning the crossing/meeting of swords, the Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū school also contains a series of jujutsu forms catalogued under the:
- Daishō Zume (大小詰)
- Daishō Tachi Zume (大小立詰)
- Daikentori (大剣取)
Muto-Dori - Unarmed defences against the sword. These techniques are not communally known outside of Japan and it is a great privilege and honour to include these techniques in our curriculum.
Although the techniques practised by students of Iai are based on the combat methods of feudal Japan, the purpose of Iaido training is the development of the self, not only in physical but also in moral and spiritual terms. Even during the early stages in the history of the various ryu, it was recognised that these moral and spiritual effects of training in swordsmanship were beneficial not merely to the individual swordsman, but to society as a whole. As military and political conditions in Japan changed, particularly in the mid – 20th century, the philosophical and moral aspects of training gained more emphasis.
In the modern era, Iai is still practised in the traditional manner, and the curriculum taught at our dojo is comprised entirely of traditional techniques and methods of swordsmanship. The style of Iai studied at our dojo is Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū, founded by Hayashizaki Jinsuke Minamoto no Shigenobu(林崎甚助源の重信), born in 1546. Thus, to train in Iai is to forge a direct link with the classical martial traditions of Japan.
For a more personal discussion of the benefits of training in Iaido I highly recommend the following articles from my sister site www.way-of-the-samurai.com:
- What is Koryu Bujutsu- Defining a Life Through The Science of War
- What is Iaido? - The Art of Japanese Swordsmanship
- An Introduction to Muso Jikiden Eishin Ryū (originally published in Irish Fighter Magazine)
- The Iaido FAQ - A Q & A for the Beginner
- Who Needs Sleep When You Have Budo - My Experience of Training with Myoken Dojo
- The Journey - Why I Love Iaido, an answer to a prospective students email.